Principles of Morpheme Identification
after Eugene Nida
Principle 1
Forms which have a common 1) semantic distinctiveness and 2) an identical phonemic form in all their occurrences constitute a single morpheme.
Principle 2
Forms which have a common 1) semantic distinctivesness -- but which differ in phonemic form may constitute a morpheme provided the distribuiton of formal differences is phonologically definable.
Principle 3
Forms which have a common semantic distinctivenesss by which differ in phonemic form in such a way that their distribution cannot be phonologically defined constitute a single morpheme if the forms are in complementary distribution.
Principle 4
An overt formal difference in a structural series constitutes a morphmem if in any member of such a series, the overt formal difference and a zero structural difference are the only significant features for distinguishing a minimal unit of phonetic-semantic distinctiveness. (i.e. replacives & zero allomorphs)
Principle 5
Homophonous forms are identifiable as the same or different morphemes on the basis of:
distintly different meanings = different morphemes
with related meanings = one if meaning classes are paralleled by distribuitonal difference, = several if the meaning classes are not paralleled by distributional differences
Principle 6
A morpheme is isolatable it if occurs:
1) in isolation
2) in multiple combinations in at least one of which the unit with which it is combined occurs in isolation or in other combinations.
3) in a single combination provided the element with which it is combined occurs in isolation or in other cominations with nonunique constitutuents.


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